Setting the Scene Many students have stood on the bank of a stream or river and watched its water flowing. In what ways are these rivers changing the land around them? Presenting the Investigation Question After the scene is set, introduce your students to the investigation question: How does a river change the land? Have your students brainstorm ideas about how this investigation question could be investigated. How would you design an experiment that could be used to test the investigation question?
What materials would you need? What would you have to do? What would you measure?
The Time Rivers
How long would the experiment take? Assessing What Your Students Already Know Most students will have observed the movement of water in a stream or river, but they may not be aware of the effect of moving stream or river water on the land. Here are some initial questions that your students can discuss, in pairs, in groups, and as a whole class: During big rainstorms, water often flows across the surface of the land. What does this water do to the soil and rock that it flows over?
Where does water that flows over the land go?
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What causes some rivers or streams to be brownish in color? What does the water flowing in a river or stream do to the rock or soil that surrounds the river? Have your students share their ideas with the class and record them as a list on the flipchart. They will create their models in stream tables containing sand. They will pour water into a coffee can. The water will flow through a rubber hose and into the streams.
They will observe how the flowing water affects the sand and shapes of the streams. Arrange students in groups. Provide the materials to each group. Instruct students to cover their desktops with paper. Assign each group an image from the Stream and River Cards. Instruct students to draw a picture of their river systems on their observation sheets.
Have them record their measurements on their observation sheets. Have students raise one end of their stream tables to a height of 10 cm. Instruct them to raise the end where the water reservoir will be pouring water into the rivers. Students should use thin wooden blocks or books to raise the stream tables. Have students record their predictions on their observation sheets. Have students fill their water reservoirs and allow the water to flow through their streams.
Have students record on their Observation Sheets the effect of the flowing water on the sand and shape of the streams. Instruct students to measure the widths of the stream beds at both ends and in the middle. This should be recorded on their observation sheets. Ask students to develop a conclusion about how the flowing water affected their streams. Hold a class discussion about what the students observed. Ask students the following questions. Record their answers on the flipchart.
Why did the water go down the river bed? What happened to the sides of the river bed? Where did the sand go? How did the shape of the river change? The parallel-world idea forms a useful framework for the notion of Alternate History, and is often used in this way The idea that other worlds lie parallel to our own and occasionally connect with it is one of the oldest speculative ideas in literature and legend; examples range from Fairyland to the 'astral plane' of Spiritualists and mystics. Both patterns are very evident in modern imaginative fiction, shaping whole subgenres A common variant of the theme is that of a multiplicity of almost-identical worlds existing in parallel: alternate worlds in which there has been no significant change.
Rick Sutcliffe provides a definition in a brief essay on his own fiction: "The timestream is an alternate history device used in Rick Sutcliffe's fiction. It is the medium in which the various alternate earths exist, or, if one prefers, it provides the connections among them, in the manner of C.
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Lewis ' wood between the worlds -- a place between. While not discussing the timestream per se , scholar John Grant discusses a related topic, that of the time slip : "Generally protagonists [return] to their starting points but a frequent device is that, after repeated timeslips, the 'traveler' chooses to remain in the other period.
Generally there is an emotional or psychological connection of some kind between the character and the earlier time — most often love Unsurprisingly, timeslips are a staple of the subgenre of romance fiction called the Paranormal Romance, exemplified by Diana Gabaldson's Outlander and its sequels.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Time Stream disambiguation. New York: Oxford University Press.
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In Gary Westfahl ed. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. New York: Routledge. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Trinity College Connecticut. Archived from the original on January 6, Retrieved December 27, Marc University of Washington. University of Evansville.
Stanford University. The Man Who Folded Himself. New York: Random House. But every time you make a change in the timestream, no matter how slight, you are actually shifting to an alternate timestream. A farmer with a soft spot for mice and weasels is a rare thing indeed, but then, rather like St Francis, Armstrong himself is beloved by all animals.
This is a far cry from the perversity and madness that gave The Thirteenth Tale its gothic atmosphere. Once Upon a River has a couple of villains, characters briefly seen but of an invigoratingly hateable badness and with no discernible redeeming qualities. Who will get to keep her? In place of the cobwebs, cinders and old books that perfume The Thirteenth Tale , Once Upon a River has mud, marsh and ale, drawing on the uncomplicated characters and enigmatic motifs of folklore. One shadowy recurring figure, the subject of much of the fireside storytelling at the Swan, is Quietly, a ghostly ferryman who gave up both life and death to save his own daughter.
In which case, he sees them to the other side of the river. And certainly this one does, but Setterfield takes her time. Or perhaps the novel feels leisurely because its mysteries and dramas are as mild and rolling as its setting. It cannot be called a page-turner, certainly not in the order of the previous book, yet ultimately it is a success.